Society for the Scientific Investigation
of Anomalous Atmospheric and Radar Phenomena
Goals and Activities of MUFON-CES
The Mutual UFO Network - Central European
Section (MUFON-CES) founded in 1974, has recently been incorporated as
the Society the for Scientific Investigation of
Anomalous Atmospheric and Radar Phenomena - MUFON-CES, Inc. Members
of the society are open-minded in regard to the origin of Unidentified
Flying Objects. However, members are convinced that UFOs represent real
objects which cannot be identified. The society consists of about 80 active
members in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Membership is by invitation
only and is terminated if active participation drops below a certain level.
Condition for membership are: academic
education, specific knowledge or other specific qualifications which could
be helpful in the investigation of the phenomenon. MUFON-CES does
not publish a periodical, information is distributed through confidential
newsletters within the society. MUFON-CES publications do appear
in the form of MUFON-CES Reports every three or four years.
The members have so far concentrated their
efforts on investigating of the physical aspects of the phenomenon and
to a lesser degree on the psychological reactions of witnesses. This does
not mean, however, that MUFON-CES has neglected the latter:
a number of reliable studies have been conducted concerning data evaluation
and credibility analysis of witnesses.
Papers presented at the annual meetings
are worked out in detail, and most of them are published in the form of
Conference Reports. Each volume contains between 200 and 500 pages. So
far, MUFON-CES has published a total of 11 volumes with more than
3,500 pages written by 24 authors. The first ten volumes were published
in German, and Vol. 11 was written in English, and is still available to
Scientists with MUFON-CES, Inc. are
working on a private basis in the following task groups:
1. Image- and Movie-Analysis Team
The members are professional photoanalysts
and computer scientists. Until now, 130 photographs and 25 videos of Unidentified
Flying Objects "in the broader sense" were analyzed by the members of this
team. Only 20 % of these cases remained unidentified.
2. Radar-Image Analysis Team
Members are producers and controllers
of military radar devices as well as pilots. Efforts are being made to
correlate visual observations with unknown radar traces registered by military
airspace control. This is a difficult task as, contrary to ground observers,
radar devices react more sensitively to objects at higher altitudes.
The members of this team interview witnesses,
develop measuring instruments (magnetic field detectors, for example) and
observe the skies with different optical instruments on a regular basis.
Over the last 22 years, interviews have been conducted with more than 100
witnesses of UFOs in the stricter sense. There are two phenomenological
different classes of objects:
A. Metallic and structured physical
objects which can obviously manipulate gravity. It is not known who pilots
these Objects (see the Plauen Case, excerpt from “Best UFO Cases - Europe“,
by I. von Ludwiger, pp. 26,27).
B. Structureless luminous phenomena
which have been observed for several minutes and up to one hour at a time.
Their source of energy is unknown.
4. Psychology Team
Members are psychologists, psychiatrists,
and hypno-therapists. They treat people with traumatic experiences in cases
with close encounters of UFOs. More than twenty cases have been investigated
by members of this team. MUFON-CES members cannot conclude that
the UFO occupants are exclusively extraterrestrial. Various other possibilities
are considered as well.
Members of this team include Professors
of mathematics and theoretical physics from various universities as well
as physicists from the aerospace industry. They attempt to explain observations
which cannot be understood within the framework of current field theories.
From a purely astrophysical point of view, the extraterrestrial hypothesis
cannot be excluded. Scientists of the theory team are investigating different
possibilities which could explain the phenomena observed. The statistical
evaluation of the physical interactions of UFOs with their surroundings
indicates the existence of a new or unknown physical field which has caused
strange effects on micro-organisms, plants and humans as well as levitation
and lowering of temperature. This could mean the UFO phenomenon displays
characteristics of a future technology.
6. Data Processing Team
Computer specialists and physicists are
developing a data base for cases in which UFOs have shown interactions
with their surroundings (by 1996: more than 1,300 cases). Members of this
team have so far studied about 20% of the 140,000 pages of reports from
the US Air Force Project BLUE BOOK, as well as about 600 pages of sighting
reports from the former Soviet Union, and hundreds of previously classified
reports from US intelligence services.
The members of this team analyzed the phenomenological
spectrum of sightings and reached the conclusion that a solid object, interacting
physically with its surroundings, is at the core of the UFO phenomenon.
Luminous phenomena like ball lightning, will-o´-the wisps, and paranormal
light effects on the one hand, and CE-IV experiences (abduction cases)
and psychological projections according to C.G. Jung on the other are borderline
cases which should be attributed to UFOs only after thorough investigation.
Accordingly, MUFON-CES has focused its efforts on the physical aspects
of the phenomenon and less on the psychological reaction of witnesses.
Theoretical studies were carried out
for the purpose of finding answers to questions such as:
One consequence of our investigations was
that we did indeed discover a unified field theory of matter and gravitation,
able to provide at least a qualitative answer to these questions. This
implies that from an astrophysical viewpoint the extraterrestrial hypothesis
is the easiest explanation of the origin of UFOs. But from another point
of view, analyzing the primary behavior of the UFOs and their occupants
only, the best hypothesis is that of time travelers.
What physical mechanism can lead to the extreme
brightness in the air surrounding UFOs? (1977, 1983)
Is it possible for laser or particle beams
to produce solid light? (1978)
Does today's physics allow the generation
of antigravity? (1975, 1983)
How is it theoretically possible for solid
objects to appear and disappear? (1978)
Which physical theories permit the relocation
of objects between widely separated points? (1978)
Are the UFO occupants robots from our own
MUFON-CES also tried to find answers
to problems of historical interest:
These investigations showed that objects,
whose characteristics were similar to those of today's unidentified light
phenomena, were already observed in the 17th century (1976). The reports
on sightings of class-B objects are more frequent, and class-A objects
are fewer in number than those of will-o'-the-wisps and paranormal light
Can one find a technical interpretation of
the "battles in the sky" mentioned in old Indian manuscripts? (1996)
Do Sumerian writings really contain reports
of extraterrestrial visitors? (1992)
Are UFOs shown in illustrations of medieval
single leafprintings? (1977)
How frequent were UFO sightings in Germany
in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries? (1976, 1983)
Who were the "Foo Fighters" of World War II?
Members of the data processing team who
analyzed the Blue Book material in 1981 came to the conclusion that the
reports were clearly distorted. All documents are characterized by lack
of carefulness, lack of familiarity with scientific methodology, and by
improper application of statistics. The number of case histories remaining
unevaluated due to allegedly insufficient
information is five times as great as the number of objects claimed to
be unidentifiable. The material is well suited to not confirming any hypothesis.
In 1980, MUFON-CES secured about 600 pages
of Russian Samisdat material about UFO sightings and theories, including
full names and addresses of witnesses. The most interesting reports were
translated into German and published in MUFON-CES Report.No. 8 (1981).
The documentation shows that EM cases, CE III events, and abduction cases
occurred in the former USSR, too. In contrast to witnesses in the West,
Russians seemed to be less concerned about ridicule than about being questioned
by the secret police. It might be mentioned that the Petrosawods sighting
in 1977 cannot be interpreted as a rocket launched at about that time in
Plesetsk 125 miles away, as James Oberg has contended, because the phenomenon
was observed for about 5 minutes under low cloud cover.
In a medical study, physiological and psychological
effects of UFO radiation were compared to those of electromagnetic irradiation.
Statistical methods for electronic data analysis were developed and suggestions
were made for an automatic registration of UFOs (1981, 1996). A number
of reliability studies were concerned with data evaluation and the credibility
of witnesses. The following topics were investigated:
MUFON-CES has emphasized the application of
scientific methodology in its investigations. Criticism by skeptics is,
in general, psychologically motivated and not the product of scientific
considerations. A procedure may be termed unscientific if the methodology
employed is wrong, but not merely because it is applied to "strange" phenomena,
such as UFOs.
The value of psychological tests for obtaining
objective statements from witnesses
Photoanalysis methods to discover fraudulent
material (1976, 1991, 1995)
Possibilities and limitations of hypnotic
regression as a source of information
New methods to assess the reliability of witnesses
The psychological effects of a culture shock
initiated by sudden contacts, as demonstrated by the example of the Melanesians